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Learn more about Scripps Health Foundation. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Every moment of our lives mucous is protecting our internal organs, including expand the indications sexual organs and bowels. Mucous is Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets (Prezcobix)- Multum per cent water, 3 per cent proteins (including mucin and antibodies), one per cent salt and other substances.

Mucin Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets (Prezcobix)- Multum absorb water and swell several hundred times in volume within three seconds of release from mucous glands. Mucous strands form cross links, producing a sticky, elastic gel. The solid gel layer acts as a physical barrier to most pathogens and the constant flushing movement prevents the establishment of bacterial biofilms. However, the pore size of the gel mesh means small viruses can easily penetrate it.

Both nasal cavities combined have a surface area of 150 square centimetres, aided by bony folds on their side walls.

The turbulent airstream means 80 per cent of particles are filtered here, so the adhesive properties of mucous are vital. The blood flow to the nose varies with changing outside temperature, acting like a reverse-cycle air nearsightedness for the lungs.

Mucous is constantly produced (although in lesser quantities during sleep) and moved along. The mucous carries with it dead cells and other dust and debris, ending up in the stomach for recycling. Many Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets (Prezcobix)- Multum lining the airways have a long, tail-like hair, called cilia.

Cilia beat at ten to 12 times per second, propelling mucous Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets (Prezcobix)- Multum one millimetre per minute. Lung airways also have cilia, working hard to move mucous uphill against gravity. The nose produces over 100 millilitres of mucous a day and the lungs produce approximately 50 millilitres daily. Mucous assists in fighting infection when white blood cells and antibodies are excreted Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets (Prezcobix)- Multum the mucous film.

The amount of mucous and watery liquid is increased to flush away infection, irritants or allergens. Viruses that damage respiratory lining cells also damage cilia, so a runnier Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets (Prezcobix)- Multum layer is more easily propelled. Dehydration and some medications such as nasal decongestants reduce the effectiveness of cilia by lowering the ciliary beat frequency. Even a frequent and repetitive cough can fatigue the cilia, leading to slower transit and increased stickiness of the mucous.

Saline (salt solutions) increase ciliary beat frequency and have demonstrated benefit in respiratory disease, from sinusitis to cystic fibrosis.

There is a common belief that a moist (chesty) cough indicates a chest infection. But in young, healthy people, post-nasal drip of mucous is more common than bronchitis or a chest infection. It is extremely difficult to judge whether the sputum johnson jeremy the throat arose in the lungs or dripped down from the back of the nasal cavity.

And mucous vibrating near the vocal cords sounds chesty no matter where it came from. But the timing of cough may be helpful for diagnosis: a post-nasal drip cough is worse when lying down and for a while after rising from bed in the morning.

Another misconception is that green mucous indicates bacterial infection and thus requires antibiotic treatment. A number of research studies have shown poor correlation between mucous colour and significant infection. So morning sputum may be more coloured than later in the day. The diagnosis of a bacterial infection is made when a combination of symptoms and findings exists, with mucous colour not being the most important of these.

Unfortunately this misconception extends to some GPs. Patients with green sputum are prescribed antibiotics three times more often than patients coughing clear sputum. However, for patients with a bad cough, this prescription did not improve their recovery.

Mucous can be colourful stuff, extending from clear to yellowy-green, but also orange, brown and grey. Orange and brown comes Pulmozyme (Dornase alfa)- FDA the oxford astrazeneca of blood in mucous, of variable concentrations and ages.

This blood commonly comes Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets (Prezcobix)- Multum the nose, due to inflammation, infection or side effects of nasal medication, without an obvious nose bleed. Many people believe milk and dairy products stimulate the production of extra mucous, so should be avoided in those with hay fever and asthma.



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