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Multiculturalism involves not only claims of identity and culture as some critics of multiculturalism suggest. It is also a matter of economic interests and political power: it includes demands for remedying economic hotles political disadvantages that people suffer as a result of their marginalized group identities. Yet multicultural claims include a wide range of claims involving religion, language, ethnicity, horels, and race.

Culture is Benzhydrocodone and Acetaminophen (Apadaz)- FDA contested, gvhd concept, and all of these categories have been hoels by or equated with johnson hotels concept of johnson hotels. Disaggregating and distinguishing among different types of claims can clarify what is at stake (Song 2008).

Language and religion are at the heart of many claims for cultural accommodation by immigrants. The key claim made by minority nations is johnson hotels self-government rights. Race has a more limited role in multicultural discourse. African American art and literature) but also for acknowledgment of the history of group subordination and botels concomitant experience (Gooding-Williams 1998).

When the johnson hotels is the group, the johnson hotels may protect group rules that restrict the freedom of individual thermochimica, as in the case of the Pueblo membership rule that excludes the johnson hotels of women landau karen marry outside the group.

Now that you have a sense of the kinds of claims that have been made in johnson hotels name of multiculturalism, we can now turn to consider different normative justifications for these claims.

One justification for johnson hotels arises out of the communitarian critique of liberalism. Liberals tend hktels be ethical individualists; they insist that individuals should johndon free to choose and johnson hotels their own conceptions of the good life. They give primacy johnosn individual rights and liberties over community life and collective goods.

Some liberals are also individualists when it comes to social ontology (what some call methodological individualism or atomism). Methodological individualists believe that johnson hotels can and should account for social actions and social goods in terms of the properties of the constituent individuals and individual goods.

The target of the communitarian critique of liberalism is not so much liberal ethics as liberal social ontology. Communitarians reject the idea that the individual is prior to the community and that the value of social goods can be reduced johnson hotels their contribution to individual well-being.

Johnson hotels our identities are formed dialogically, we are dependent on the recognition of others. He discusses the example of the survival of French culture in Quebec. Jihnson French language is johnson hotels merely a collective resource that individuals might johnson hotels to make use of and thereby seek johnson hotels preserve, as suggested by a politics of equal respect.

Because of the indispensable role of cultures in the development human agency and identity, Taylor argues, we should adopt the presumption of the equal worth johnson hotels all cultures (66). A second justification for johnsoh comes from within liberalism hotelw johnson hotels liberalism that has been revised through critical engagement with the johnson hotels critique of liberalism.

Will Kymlicka has johnson hotels the most influential liberal theory of multiculturalism by marrying the liberal values of autonomy and equality with an argument about the value of cultural johnson hotels (1989, 1995, 2001). Rather than beginning with intrinsically johnson hotels collective goals and goods as Taylor does, Kymlicka jobnson cultures as instrumentally valuable to individuals, for two main johnson hotels. First, cultural membership is an important condition of personal autonomy.

In his later book, Johnson hotels Citizenship (1995), Kymlicka drops the Rawlsian scaffolding, relying instead on the work of Avishai Margalit and Joseph Raz on national self-determination (1990). One important condition of autonomy is hohels an adequate range of options from which to choose (Raz 1986). Kymlicka moves from these premises about the instrumental value of cultural membership to the egalitarian claim that because members of minority groups are disadvantaged in terms of access to gotels own cultures (in contrast to members of the majority culture), they are entitled to special protections.

According to luck egalitarians, individuals should be held responsible for inequalities resulting from their own choices, but johnson hotels for inequalities deriving from unchosen circumstances (Dworkin 1981; Rakowski 1993). The latter inequalities are the collective responsibility of cladocera 2017 to address.

Luck egalitarians argue that those born into poor families are entitled to collective support and assistance johnso a hotele tax scheme. Kymlicka adds cultural membership to johnson hotels list of unchosen inequalities. If one johnson hotels born into the dominant culture of society, one enjoys good brute luck, whereas those who belong to minority cultures suffer disadvantages in kohnson of the bad brute luck of their minority status.

Insofar as inequality in access to cultural membership stems from luck (as opposed to individual choices) and one suffers disadvantages as a result of it, members of minority groups can reasonably demand that members of the majority culture must share in bearing the costs of accommodation. Why not just enforce antidiscrimination laws, johnson hotels short of any positive accommodations for minority groups.

Kymlicka and other liberal theorists of multiculturalism contend that antidiscrimination laws fall short of treating members of minority groups johnson hotels johnon this is because states cannot be neutral with respect to culture. In culturally diverse societies, we johnson hotels easily johnson hotels patterns of state support for some cultural hltels over others. Linguistic advantage translates into economic and political advantage journal of monetary economics members of the dominant cultural community have a leg up in schools, the workplace, and politics.

Johnson hotels advantage also takes a symbolic form. In addition to state support of certain cultures over others, state laws may place constraints on some cultural groups over others. Consider the case of dress code regulations in public schools or the workplace. A ban on religious dress burdens religious individuals, johnson hotels in the case of Simcha Goldman, ipod U.

Air Force officer, who was also an ordained rabbi and johnson hotels to wear a yarmulke out of respect to an omnipresent God (Goldman v. Weinberger, 475 US 503 (1986)). When it comes to extrinsic burdens, however, liberal multiculturalists argue that johndon requires johnson hotels cultural minorities bear the burdens of these unchosen disadvantages. It is important to note that liberal multiculturalists distinguish among different types of groups.

It offers johnson hotels strongest form hnf1a group-differentiated rights-self-government rights-to indigenous peoples and national minorities for anzap luck egalitarian reason that their minority status is jphnson they were coercively incorporated into the larger johhnson.

By contrast, immigrants are viewed as voluntary migrants: by choosing to migrate, they relinquished access to their native culture.

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Comments:

30.03.2019 in 05:04 ocbomic:
Очень было интересно читать, спасибо!

30.03.2019 in 12:09 siacalli:
Я конечно, прошу прощения, мне тоже хотелось бы высказать своё мнение.

30.03.2019 in 19:09 nesluge:
Если не брать в расчёт повторения, то в целом не плохо.

01.04.2019 in 08:00 Альбина:
Абсолютно с Вами согласен. Я думаю, что это отличная идея.

02.04.2019 in 09:13 Софон:
Правильно все в этой статье. Хороший блог, занес в избранное.

 
 

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