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Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. It is a transboundary animal bowel irritable syndrome (TAD) that deeply affect the production of livestock and disrupting regional and international trade in animals and animal products.

Countries that are currently free of FMD without vaccination remain under constant threat of an incursion. Seventy-five percent of the costs attributed to FMD prevention and control are incurred by low income and lower-middle income countries.

FMD is caused Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum an Aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae, seven strains (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1) are endemic in different countries worldwide. Each strain requires a specific vaccine to provide immunity to a vaccinated animal.

Its prevention is based on the presence of early detection and warning Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum and the implementation of effective surveillance among other measures.

FMD is the first disease for which the OIE established an official list of disease-free countries which can be officially recognised as free of the disease either in their entirety or in defined Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum and compartments.

Links to Code and Manual Terrestrial code Code Chapter on Disease Manual Chapter on DiseaseFoot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact.

Intensively reared animals are more susceptible to the disease than traditional breeds. The disease is rarely fatal Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum adult animals, but there is often high mortality in young animals due to myocarditis or, when the dam is infected by the disease, lack of milk.

FMD is characterised by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. The disease causes severe production losses, and while the majority of affected animals recover, the disease often leaves them weakened and debilitated. The organism which causes FMD is an aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae. There are seven strains (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1) which are endemic in different container worldwide.

All seven of the serotypes have also been found in wildlife, although the latter does not play a significant role in the maintenance of the disease. To alcoholics anonymous, the only confirmed reservoir in wildlife is African buffalo Syncerus caffer). FMD is an OIE-listed disease and must be reported to the Organisation, as indicated in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

It was the first disease for which the OIE established official status recognition. Member Countries can also apply for official endorsement of their national control programmes.

FMD is found in all excretions and secretions from infected animals. Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum, these animals breathe out a large amount of aerosolised virus, which can infect other animals via the respiratory or oral routes.

The virus may be present in milk and semen for up to 4 days before the animal shows clinical signs of disease. The significance of FMD is related to the ease with which the virus can spread through any or all of the following:Animals that have recovered from infection may sometimes carry the virus and initiate new outbreaks of the disease. The severity of clinical signs will depend on the strain of virus, the exposure dose, the age and species of animal and the host immunity. Clinical signs can range from mild or inapparent to severe: they are more severe in cattle and intensively reared pigs than in sheep and goats.

The typical clinical sign is the occurrence of blisters (or vesicles) on the nose, tongue or lips, inside the oral Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum, between the toes, above the hooves, on the teats socks smell at pressure points on the skin.

Ruptured blisters can result in extreme lameness and reluctance to move or eat. Usually, blisters heal Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum 7 days (sometimes longer), but complications, such as secondary bacterial infection of open blisters, can also occur.

Other frequent symptoms are fever, depression, hypersalivation, loss of appetite, weight loss, growth retardation and a drop in milk production, which can persist even after recovery. The health of young calves, lambs, and piglets may be compromised by lack of milk if dams are infected.

Death can occur before development of blisters due to a multifocal myocarditis. Myositis may also occur in other Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum. More information on the disease can be found in the OIE Technical Disease Card. The disease may be suspected based on clinical signs.

However, FMD cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases, such as Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis and vesicular exanthema. Confirmation of any suspected FMD case through laboratory tests is therefore a matter of urgency. Relevant tests are described in the OIE Terrestrial Manual. The initial measures described in the Global Food and Mouth disease control strategy are the presence of early detection and warning systems and the implementation of effective surveillance in accordance with the guidelines detailed in the OIE Terrestrial Code.

They help monitor the occurrence and prevalence of the disease and allow characterisation of FMD viruses. The implementation of the FMD control strategy varies from country to country and depends on the epidemiological situation of the disease:In general, it is essential for livestock owners and producers to maintain sound biosecurity practices to prevent the introduction and spread of the virus.

Contingency planning for potential outbreaks will identify the elements included in a response effort to eradicate the disease, such as:Depending on the FMD situation, vaccination strategies can be designed to achieve mass coverage or be targeted to specific animal sub-populations or zones.

Vaccination programmes carried out in a target population should meet several critical criteria, mainly:The vaccines used should meet OIE standards of potency and pfizer fda, and the strain or Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum in the vaccine must antigenically match those Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum in the field. It is important to use inactivated virus vaccines, as inactivated virus does not have the ability to multiply in vaccinated animals.

The use of live virus vaccines is not acceptable due to the danger of reversion to virulenceVaccination can play a role in an effective control strategy for FMD, but the decision on whether or not to use vaccination lies with national authorities.

For more information on FMD vaccination, consult the related FAQ. FMD is endemic in several parts of Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum and in most of Africa and the Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum East. In Latin America, the majority of countries apply zoning and are recognised as FMD-free, either with or without vaccination. Australia, New Zealand, Prostate milking prostate massage, Central and North America, and continental Western Europe are currently free of FMD.

However, FMD is a transboundary animal disease that can occur sporadically in any typically free area. In accordance with the OIE procedure for official recognition of disease status, this page provides access to the List of OIE Members officially recognised free from foot and Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum disease (FMD) by the OIE through the Plasma-Lyte 148 (Multiple Electrolytes Inj)- FDA of a resolution by the World Assembly Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol)- Multum Delegates (Assembly) of the OIE at the General Session in May every year.

A Member wishing to be officially recognised as disease-free by the OIE should submit the questionnaire laid out in Chapter 1. The assessment carried out by the Scientific Commission is based on the recommendations formulated by a relevant ad hoc Group composed of world specialists in disease control.

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Comments:

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