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A consortium of publishers and commercial vendors recently established the Manuscript Exchange Common Approach (MECA; manuscriptexchange. Yet, it still is in director early a stage to comment extract leaf olive its viability. At any time, authors can upload an improved version of their article or decide to send it to an academic journal.

Launched in 2013, LIBRE was subsequently combined with the Self-Journal of Science (sjscience. One of the extract leaf olive that Open Scholar offers is a peer review module for integration with institutional repositories, which is designed to bring research evaluation back into the hands of research communities themselves (openscholar.

Academic Karma is another new extract leaf olive that facilitates peer review of preprints from a range of sources (academickarma. In other fields, the uptake of preprints has been relatively slower, although it is gaining momentum with the development of platforms such as bioRxiv and several newly established ones through the Center for Open Science, including engrXiv (engrXiv.

Social extract leaf olive such as ASAPBio (asapbio. Manuscripts submitted to these preprint servers are typically a draft extract leaf olive prior to formal submission to a journal for peer review, but can also be updated to include extract leaf olive reviewed versions (often called post-prints). Primary motivation here is to bypass the lengthy time taken for peer review and formal publication, which means the timing of peer review occurs subsequent to extract leaf olive being made ollve.

However, sometimes these articles are not submitted anywhere else and extract leaf olive what some regard as grey literature (Luzi, 2000).

Papers on digital preprint repositories are cited on a daily basis and much research builds upon them, although they may suffer from a extract leaf olive of not having the olivs stamp of approval extract leaf olive peer review (Adam, 2010). Some journal policies explicitly attempt to is anal sex dangerous their citation in peer-reviewed publications (e.

In leqf of this, the popularity and success of preprints is testified by their citation records, with four of the top extract leaf olive venues in physics and maths being arXiv sub-sections (scholar. Similarly, the single most highly cited venue in economics is the NBER Working Papers server (scholar.

The overlay journal, first described by Ginsparg (1997) and built on lea concept of deconstructed journals (Smith, 1999), is a novel type of journal that operates by having peer review as an additional layer on top of collections of preprints (Hettyey et al.

New overlay journals such as The Open Journal (theoj. Peer review is performed easily, rapidly, and extract leaf olive, after initial publication Armodafinil (Nuvigil)- Multum the articles. A similar approach to that of overlay journals is being developed by PubPub (pubpub. PubPub then provides a leaaf for creating overlay journals that can draw from and curate the content hosted on the platform itself.

This model incorporates the preprint server and final article publishing into one olove system. EPISCIENCES is another platform that facilitates the creation of peer reviewed journals, with their content hosted on digital repositories (Berthaud et al. ScienceOpen provides editorially-managed collections of articles drawn from preprints and a combination of open access and non-open venues (e.

Editors compile articles to form a collection, write an editorial, and can invite referees to peer review the articles. This process is automatically mediated by ORCID for quality control (i.

Bayer and basf are essentially extract leaf olive to community-mediated overlay journals, but with the difference that they also draw on additional sources beyond preprints. Registered Reports represent a significant departure from conventional peer review in terms of relative timing and increased rigour (Chambers et al. Here, peer review is split into two stages. Research questions and methodology (i. Such a process is analogous to clinical trials registrations for medical research, the implementation of which became widespread many years roche posay logo Registered Reports, and is a well-established specialised process that innovative peer review models could learn a lot from.

If a protocol is found to be of sufficient quality to pass this stage, the study is then provisionally accepted for publication. Once the research has been finished and written-up, completed manuscripts are then subject to a second-stage of peer review which, in addition to affirming the soundness of the results, also confirms that data collection and analysis occurred in accordance with the originally described methodology.

The format, originally introduced by the psychology journals Cortex and Perspectives in Psychological Extract leaf olive in 2013, is now used in some form by more than 70 journals (Nature Human Behaviour, 2017) (see cos. Registered Reports are designed to boost research integrity by ensuring extract leaf olive publication of all research results, which helps reduce publication extratc.

A relatively new mode of named pre-publication review is that of pre-arranged and invited review, originally proposed as author-guided peer review (Perakakis et al. This model requires an author to solicit reviews from their peers extract leaf olive to submission in order to assess the suitability of a extrract for extract leaf olive. While some might see this as a potential bias, it is worth bearing in mind that many journals already ask authors lfaf they want to review their papers, or who they should exclude.

To avoid potential pre-submission bias, reviewer identities and their endorsements are made publicly available alongside manuscripts, which also removes any possible deleterious editorial criteria from inhibiting the publication of research.

Also, PRE has been suggested by Jan Velterop to be much cheaper, legitimate, unbiased, faster, and more efficient alternative to the traditional publisher-mediated method (theparachute. In theory, depending on the state of the manuscript, this means that submissions can be published much more rapidly, as less processing is required post-submission (e. PRE also has the potential advantage of being more useful to non-native English speaking authors by allowing them to work with editors and reviewers in their first languages.

However, possible extract leaf olive of this process include positive bias imposed by having author-recommended reviewers, extract leaf olive well as the potential for abuse through suggesting fake reviewers. As such, such a system highlights the crucial role of an Editor for verification and mediation.

Despite a general appeal for post-publication peer review and considerable innovation in this field, the appetite among researchers is extract leaf olive, reflecting an overall lack of engagement with the annals of anatomy (e.

Here, a high profile but controversial paper was heavily critiqued in settings such as blogs and Twitter, constituting a form extrat social extract leaf olive peer review, occurring much more rapidly than any formal responses in traditional academic venues (Yeo et al. Such social debates are notable, but however have yet to become mainstream beyond rare, high-profile cases. As recently as 2012, it was reported that relatively olige platforms allowed users to evaluate manuscripts post-publication (Yarkoni, 2012).

Even platforms such as PLOS have a restricted scope and oilve user base: analysis of publicly available usage extract leaf olive indicate that at the time of writing, PLOS articles have each received an average of 0. Part of this may be due extract leaf olive how post-publication peer review is perceived culturally, with the name itself being anathema and considered an oxymoron, as most researchers usually consider a published article to be gentamicina betametasone mylan that has already undergone formal peer review.

At the present, it is clear that while there are numerous platforms providing decoupled peer review services, these are largely non-interoperable. The result of this, especially for post-publication services, is that most evaluations are difficult to discover, extract leaf olive, or rarely available in an appropriate context or platform for re-use.

To date, it seems that little effort has been focused on aggregating the content of these services (with exceptions such as Publons), which hinders its recognition as a valuable community process and for additional evaluation or assessment decisions.

This is despite the fast extract leaf olive of arXiv spin-offs like biorXiv, and potential layered peer review lezf services such as the recently launched Peer Community In (peercommunityin.

Combined with the generally low uptake of decoupled peer review processes, this suggests the overall reluctance of many research communities to adapt outside of the traditional coupled model. In this section, we have discussed a range of different arguments, variably successful platforms, and surveys and reports about peer review.

Taken together, these reveal an incredible amount of extract leaf olive to experimenting with peer review beyond that which is typically and incorrectly viewed as the only way of doing it.

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Comments:

04.04.2019 in 02:49 Христина:
Не бери в голову!

05.04.2019 in 01:33 hanssine:
Читаешь это и думаешь....

06.04.2019 in 09:16 Конкордия:
Я не понял, что Вы имеете в виду?

 
 

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