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Special rapporteur on the human rights x topic migrants The UN Commission on Human Rights appointed in 1999 a special rapporteur on the human rights of x topic "to examine ways and means to overcome the obstacles existing to the full and effective protection of the human rights of this vulnerable group".

The virtually universal system of protection for refugees means that violations of their civil and political x topic can be recognized and remedied… However, there is no such recognition of violations of economic, x topic and cultural rights, which can also be serious enough to force people to flee their places of origin".

However, as of August 2011, x topic 44 states had ratified it and no major immigration country had yet done so. Regarding members x topic the Council of Europe, only Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Turkey had ratified it.

The Convention does not create new rights for migrants, but provides for the treatment and conditions of work x topic with nationals of the state concerned. The Convention declares that all migrants should have access to a minimum degree of protection.

It requires states to take measures x topic prevent illegal x topic as well as employment of migrants in an irregular situation, but it also stresses that the fundamental human rights of non-documented migrants must be guaranteed. Migration reminds me of waves on the sea: the same tides, whirlpools and undertows.

And it is amusing to see how some politicians claim that they can prohibit these waves". Anastasia Denisova, human rights activistAn issue that touches migration and human rights closely is trafficking. As opportunities for people to migrate legally are limited, they often take risks and turn to intermediaries, who tend to take advantage of their situation, for example by financing the costs of migration in exchange for the migrant committing his workforce to the exclusive use of the trafficker.

Article 4 of the X topic Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) explicitly and categorically prohibits slavery and forced labour.

The Council of Europe adopted the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (entered into force in 2008), which involves obligations of the states to prevent trafficking in human beings, prosecute traffickers and protect the victims. Because of its secret nature, no one knows exactly how many people in the world are victims of human trafficking, but estimations run from several hundred thousand to several million.

In Europe, more than 140,000 victims are trapped in human trafficking at any given time, many forced into prostitution22. Migrants who are victims x topic trafficking may find themselves in situations equivalent to slavery when their passports are confiscated or they are de facto locked up.

The status of stateless persons is regulated by the UN Convention on the Status of Stateless Persons23, adopted in 1954, as well as the UN Convention on Reduction of Statelessness24. The UNHCR, mandated to protect the rights of stateless people, works with governments, other UN agencies and civil society to address this problem.

The Schengen agreements (1985, 1990) provide for free movement and unrestricted travel to citizens of Schengen states (currently including 22 European Union member states, as well as Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland), who can live, tept, or work anywhere they wish.

However, while abolishing the former existing border controls, the EU has built a larger "border" to protect its area. A common migration and asylum policy has steadily developed among EU member states as a result x topic migration movements and patterns in Europe.

The Schengen system with its border control mechanisms and the Dublin Convention (1997) with the safe-third-country-regulation, which makes it easy to control and send back undesired migrants entering one of the Schengen member states, resulted in x topic numbers x topic asylum seekers and increasing numbers of irregular migrants.

A similar visa-free system is developed within some countries of x topic Commonwealth of Independent States (including all post-Soviet states, except for the Baltic states and Georgia), and many migrants from X topic and other Central Asian countries use this way to come to X topic or the Ukraine as a x topic destination, or K-Tab (Potassium Chloride Extended-Release Tablets)- FDA transit countries to x topic EU.

The Regulation establishes a finger-printing x topic of asylum seekers, called the EURODAC. Asylum seekers must apply for asylum in the first EU country x topic which they x topic and where their x topic are taken. Asylum seekers x topic be returned to another EU member state if it can be proven that they have either entered the EU (by air, sea or land) or made an application for asylum in that other state. X topic Dublin Regulation territory was extended to some non-EU countries such as Norway, Iceland and Switzerland.

This system puts a huge strain on several EU x topic that are geographically more likely to be a country of first entrance for asylum seekers. The EU increasingly expects its neighbours to prevent people from reaching its borders. Putting migrants in detention centres located in some countries within and outside the EU (even in Africa) and deportations have become routine practices in Proscar (Finasteride)- Multum, and they create x topic lot of opportunities for human rights violations.

Critics state that whilst Europe claims to be building a "common space" for freedom, justice and security, it is creating an excluded underclass of second-class citizens from non-EU member states and is building up x topic "Fortress Europe". According to data gathered by the monitoring group Fortress Europe, as of x topic August 2011 at least 17,738 people trying to enter Europe had died since 1988.

The same happens in Eastern European countries as well. The very restrictive policies held by many European countries may force immigrants to turn to illegal methods of getting into Europe. They often fall prey to organised traffickers. Most never reach Europe, while some die on the way. Migrants are not criminals "They arrive from across the ocean in shaky and dangerous boats, many losing their lives along news in medicine way, with their anonymous bodies occasionally washing up on European shores.

They find ways to verruca vulgaris land borders in secret, or elude border controls with false documents. European countries tend to approach this population as a "security threat". X topic foreigners are not criminals; they are guilty only of having aspired to a better life, a job or, in the saddest and most distressing cases, protection from persecution. According to European human rights law, states are not prohibited from detaining irregular migrants.

Article 5(1)(f) of the EECHR permits "the lawful arrest x topic detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or x topic. Under the ECHR, the Council of Europe member states guarantee the rights set forth in the Convention not only to their own citizens, but to everybody within their jurisdiction.

The application of the Dublin regulation x topic been examined many times by the European X topic of Human Rights. For instance in the case of M. Belgium and Greece (2011), the Court found that Belgium violated the ECHR by returning an X topic asylum seeker to Greece, where conditions of detention and living were x topic and humiliating; a proper examination of the request for asylum was not ensured due to the deficiencies of the asylum system; Belgium was aware of those conditions but still sent him back.

As Greece is not alone in failing on detention safeguards, the EU "Dublin system" has come into question since it is based on the false premise that EU member states are all safe and able to cope with x topic. Many other complaints x topic also related to the expulsion of x topic. In Bader and others v. In X topic and K. He or she is entitled to all the rights of a child, guaranteed by the United Nations Convention on x topic Rights of the Child, and other international human rights instruments.

The Council of Europe has, over the years, made many recommendations covering the harmonisation x topic national procedures relating to asylum, training of officials in charge of x topic procedures, detention of asylum seekers, return of rejected asylum seekers as well as subsidiary and x topic protection. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) has a Committee on Migration, Refugees and Population.

The Committee focuses its work on the analysis of the most problematic x topic related to its mandate, including among others the situation of unaccompanied minors, the role of migration in demographic processes, and the protection of migrants and refugees. In its 2011 report, the Committee expressed its concern about the lack of national legislation and guidance on the protection of undocumented children, and called on member states to implement appropriate legislative measures and to x topic barriers such as administrative obstacles, discrimination or lack of information to ensure x topic full enjoyment of these rights in practice.

Racism, xenophobia and anti-immigrant sentiments are on the rise in many countries.

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